Wooden Canoe Eras

By purchases

Era Manufacturer/Canoe Type Source
1893-1901 Clinker-built, board-and-batten, wood-canvas Various Maine builders
1902 Birchbark Ottawa Valley
1903-1904 Board-and-batten, birchbark Various Canadian builders
1905-1907 Board-and-batten, wood-canvas Various Canadian builders
1908-1925 E.M. White Canoe Company/wood-canvas Old Town, Maine
1926-1979 Chestnut Canoe Company/wood-canvas Fredericton, New Brunswick


Donald Fraser Canoes/wood-canvas

Temagami Canoe Company/wood-canvas

Fredericton, New Brunswick



Canoe Type or Manufacturer. Canoes did not come exclusively from the builders listed, but they were the dominant sources of canoes in their eras.

1902-1904: Birchbarks were the canoes obtained in Mattawa during the Trip In, because that was the canoe available at the HBC and from the guides.

Chestnut: The start of the Chestnut era was sometime in the late 1920s. Chestnut's large-volume, fast Prospector had become the ideal canoe for Keewaydin trips, and  probably, there was a desire to save the duty on canoe importation from the U.S. In the 1960s and 70s, Keewaydin would become one of Chestnut's largest non-dealer customers.

E. M. White: Henry McLeod became a builder at White, influencing the decision to switch from Old Town.

1980-81: There were no wood-canvas canoe purchases in these years between the demise of Chestnut and the start up of Don Fraser's shop. Reimers bought as many Chestnuts as he could in 1979, Chestnut's last year. In the end, he got 20 17-foot Cruisers, Prospectors and Guide's Specials. The last 18-foot Prospector built by Chestnut did not arrive as it was run over by a truck at the factory. The arrival of Scott Kevlars in 1979 and 1980 eased the need for canvas-canoe purchases in those years. 


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